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TUBSAT-N and TUBSAT-N1 were the first nanosatellites to be developed at TU Berlin. The project directed by Prof. Renner and managed by Robert Schulte has been very successful. Launched together on July 7, 1998 from a Russian submarine with a converted SS-23 SHTIL military rocket, the satellites separated when the designated orbit was reached. The launch by a K-407 Novomoskovsk submarine in the Barents Sea was the first time a satellite had been launched into orbit from a submarine. The submarine itself was closed for outside scientists but the complete operation proceeded without any serious problems and delays. The orbit reentry from the highly elliptical orbit of 770 × 400 km was one year later. The prime mission was the demonstration of the feasibility of a low cost global communication system. TUBSAT-N/N1 have been capable of the same communication experiments like TUBSAT-A, but with notedly lower mass and volume requirements.
Small Satellites: Past, Present, and Future
TUBSAT: The Technical University of Berlin Satellite Program
The Aerospace Press, AIAA, Helvajian & Janson (Editors), 2008
TUBSAT-N, An Ultra Low Cost Global Communication Nanosatellite
Published in Air and Space 2000
TUBSAT-N, An Experimental Global Communication Satellite
System, based on Nanosatellites
IAF specialists symposium novel concepts for smaller, faster &
better space missions, Redondo Beach, CA, USA 1999
TUBSAT-N, A Global Communication Satellite System, based on
Small Satellite Systems and Services, 4th International Symposium,
Antibes, France 1998