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MAROC-TUBSAT is the result of a cooperation of TU Berlin with CRTS (Centre Royal de Teledetection Spatial of Morocco). The cooperation was initiated by Karim Taha, a former student of Prof. Renner in 1995 who originates from Morocco. It is a microsatellite for earth observation and allows observation of any place in the world within 24h and can document events that change with time between 12h and 2 weeks. The camera has a focal length of 72mm and a field of view of about 8deg. Typical applications include ice movement, cartography or vegetation development.

The payload camera was developed in Morocco. The cooperation also included teaching Moroccan engineers satellite technology and design. On Dec. 10, 2001 the satellite was finally launched with the Zenit rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome into the sun-synchronous orbit with an altitude of 1000 km.


Earth Observation (ice movement, cartography, vegetation)

Technology Demonstration (ACS star sensor, low cost imaging mission)
Dec. 10, 2001 (Russian Zenit), Operational
Sun-synchronous, altitude 1000km, inclination 99.4deg
47kg, 32cmx34cmx36cm
4 aluminum compartments
Thermal Control
4 NiH2 battery cells, 12Ah, 10V

4 silicon solar panels (single string of 34 cells, max. 14W)
TTC: VHF (FFSK, 1200baud, 5W), UHF (FFSK, 1200baud, 3.5W)

Payload: S-Band (max. 250kBaud, 2W RF, BPSK modulation)
Attitude Control
3 wheel/gyros pairs, magnetorquer

3-axis magnetic field sensor, star sensor, sun sensor
Focal length 72mm, pixel resolution 32m (f/6, bw image)

Flight Results: Hamburg Area, Germany

MAROC-TUBSAT Hamburg Hafen
The image has been captured December 12, 2002

Flight Results: Greece

MAROC-TUBSAT Griechenland
Stitched Image of Greece and Turkey. Images have been collected between December 2002 and March 2003.


Small Satellites: Past, Present, and Future

TUBSAT: The Technical University of Berlin Satellite Program

Matthias Buhl

The Aerospace Press, AIAA, Helvajian & Janson (Editors), 2008 (ISBN: 978-1-884989-22-3)

Flight Experience with the Micro Satellite Maroc-Tubsat

S. Roemer, U. Renner

54th International Astronautical Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, Sep. 29-3, 2003, Bremen, Germany

TUBSAT-C, A Microsat Bus for Earth Observation Payloads

P. Butz, U. Renner

3rd International Symposium, Small Satellites Systems and Services, June 1996, Annecy, France


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